The international monetary system refers to the institutional arrangements and practices for pricing, currencies exchange, payments adjustment, etc. The world monetary system is not eternal but will evolve with environmental changes. At the end of World War II, the United States promoted the establishment of the Bretton Woods system, the core of which was the dollar as a means of valuation, trading, and value storage. In the decades between the 1971s and the 2008 financial crisis, the Bretton Woods system had experienced changes, the fixed link between the US dollar and gold was nullified, and the exchange rates of national currencies entered the nominally free-floating Jamaican system, however the US dollar, as the foundation of the international monetary system, didn't falter.
After the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008, the changes in the international power pattern and the new technological revolution poses new challenges to the dollar’s hegemony, and the de-dollarization of the world economy is accelerating.
, the multipolar global economic structure has evolved in-depth with the rapid rising of non-US countries’ GDP. The share of the US GDP in world GDP fell from 40% in 1960 to 24% in 2021. Asia's GDP accounted for 20% of the world's GDP forty or fifty years ago but rose to 47% in 2021. In the past 10 years, the contribution of China's economy to world economic growth has stabilized at about 30%. Even in the past two years of the global epidemic, China's two-year average economic growth rate has reached 5.1%, ranking first among the world's major economies and continuing to be the engine of world economic growth. This changed the United States' long-standing position as the locomotive of the world economy in the post-war decades. The economic foundation determines the international structure, which requires more sovereign currencies to facilitate international payment settlement, balance-of-payments adjustment, etc.
, the United States continues to overdraw US dollar credibility. Under the guidance of the so-called "America First" principle, President Trump fought a "trade war", a "tariff war" and played a "zero-sum game", which seriously overdrew the global leadership of the United States. After the Biden administration came to power, he did not adjust the Trump administration's economic and trade policies, which let the international credibility of the US dollar fall irreversibly. Furthermore, the Federal Reserve's "unlimited quantitative easing" policy after the COVID-19 pandemic flooded the liquidity of the US dollar. The Fed's balance sheet expanded from about $4 trillion in March 2020 to more than $9 trillion at present, which is 10 times the size of the Federal Reserve's balance sheet before the 2008 financial tsunami. The Federal Reserve is clearly exploiting its unique situation in the US dollar global framework to pass on the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. Just as the former US Treasury Secretary John Connally in the 1970s said: The US dollar is our currency, but it’s your problem
After the breakout of conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the United States and Europe joined hands to kick Russia out of the SWIFT payment system, compounding the concerns of different nations which rush to study alternative transactions and payment systems outside the US dollar.
More and more countries hope to find a more stable currency. This is exactly what we have seen. Turkey has started the process of reducing its holdings of dollar assets, Iran announced that the valuation pre-settlement of its oil transactions will no longer use the US dollar, Russia has begun to use the local currency in its natural resource trade, and major European countries have vigorously promoted the European version of the settlement system.
, there is a new development in the international division of production. After the 2008 financial crisis, the process of globalization slowed down, and the trend of localizing production strengthened. In the short term, driven by geopolitical and risk aversion motivation, the global industrial chain will be dispersed and contracted to multiple region blocks, and the regionalization and localization of the industrial chain will also become a trend. The new pattern of globalization in the future will be to carry out a professional division of production among the world's best enterprises at regional levels and form vertically integrated clusters, and the proportion of benefits obtained by the host countries will increase, which represents the so-called "fairness" of production layout, promote the increase of regional trade transactions, and is sure to accelerate the rise of regional local currency settlement.