World politics has begun to rapidly return to a state of anarchy built on force.3 “The end of history” culminated in the restoration of its usual course – the destruction of the international order resulting from large- scale conflicts between centres of power.
When one’s gloomiest predictions turn out to be the most accurate, this is bound to cause mixed feelings. The satisfaction of being proved prescient is offset by the reality of a more alarming future. Since 2018, the Valdai Club has been warning that processes leading to the total collapse of the global political and economic system are accelerating, while the international order that developed as a set of institutions in the latter half of the 20th century and persisted into the current century, is becoming increasingly deformed.
The crisis of globalisation as a universal framework for global development started in the 2000s. The pandemic proved that globalisation, as it was understood in th1980s, was quite reversible. The military-political crisis that broke out in Europe in 2022 – an extremely dangerous and almost unpredictable relapse into rivalry between the major superpowers – has impacted most of the world in one way or another. It also signals the end of the model of relations in which the “blessing” of mutual dependence was a bedrock assumption.